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Heat Engine Projects.
Last modified on 20130326
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choosing
Choosing a Heat Engine.

Ever since I started the Heliostat Array project it became clear to me that some form of electric power generating capability was needed. Physics says that all forms of energy can be expressed in equivalent units. While this is true, some forms of energy are more $$$ VALUABLE $$$ than others. I usually rate the value of heat lowest with mechanical higher and electricity the highest. In the process of generating any of the higher forms of energy some is wasted and eventually ends up as heat anyway.

The first and most obvious method I examined for electric generation was high concentration factor PV cells. Due to some specific problems encountered when used with my heliostat arrays I had to abandon PV cells in my system. See:
Heat Engine Cycles * Problems encountered with Photovoltaic Concentrators.

The next best method would be some form of heat engine. There are several that make good candidates:
1.Rankine turbine generator.
2.Rankine piston engine generator.
3.Rankine rotary expansion generator.
4.Rankine LMMHD generator.
5.Brayton gas turbine generator.
6.Brayton piston engine generator.
7.Stirling piston engine generator.
8.Thermoelectric generator.
9.Thermionic generator.

I have worked with all of these except the for the Rankine turbine and thermionic generators. All engines have advantages and disadvantages. For use with my heliostats I have chosen either the Steam Rankine piston engine or the Rankine rotary expansion engine using propane as the working fluid.

However, the thermionic generators have great potential.


class
Thermodynamics Class.

Steve Spence <sspence@green-trust.org> posted this list of thermodynamics studies on the web. Thanks Steve.

The question that was posed was in reference to the Carnot cycle and the efficiencies that can be obtained.

theorem which says that a maximum efficiency of heat engine can be obtained by a reversible engine, and that efficiency depends only on the temperatures of the hot and the cool sources of the engine. This theorem played an essential role for the subsequent development of thermodynamics (Clapeyron, Kelvin, Rankine, and Clausius, to mention only a few), leading eventually to the discovery and mathematical formulations of the first and the second law of thermodynamics.

Students should understand the second law of thermodynamics, the concept of entropy, and heat engines and the Carnot cycle so they can:

1. Determine whether entropy will increase, decrease, or remain the same during a particular situation.

2. Compute the maximum possible efficiency of a heat engine operating between two given temperatures.

3. Compute the actual efficiency of a heat engine.

4. Relate the heats exchanged at each thermal reservoir in a Carnot cycle to the temperatures of the reservoirs.

physics
A bunch of sites that desscribe the math and physics behind heat engines:

* Efficiency
Tatsuo Shibata and Shin-ichi Sasa
Department of Pure and Applied Sciences
University of Tokyo

* Equilibrium Chemical Engines
Tatsuo Shibata and Shin-ichi Sasa
Department of Pure and Applied Sciences
University of Tokyo


turbine
rankine
Rankine turbine generator.

The steam turbine would be very nice because they turn at a relatively high speed. Generally high speed is another one of those valuable qualities. Hi speeds equate to small and efficient alternators. Two big down sides for turbines are the extreme extremely expensive cost and that the unavailability of small units. (If anyone has any references to small cost effective units please write and inform me.)

greenturbine
Green Turbine
Green Turbine * Green Turbine
Small scale Rankine Steam Turbine.
Their made in 1.2KW, 2.5KW, and 15KW

turbtecsteam
Turbine Technologies
Turbine Technologies * Turbine Technologies
Advanced Steam Turbine Powerplant

reliableturbine
Reliable Steam Engine Co.
Reliable Steam Engine Co. * Reliable Steam Engine Co.
Impulse-Reaction Turbine
New type of turbine suitable for small power systems or waste heat energy recovery from diesel engine exhaust and other heat sources.

kimmel
Kimmel Steam Power
Kimmel Steam Power * Kimmel Steam Power
Steam automobiles monotube boilers and piston engines.

SW Michigan

freepower
FREEPOWER
Freepower * FREEPOWER
ORC TurbinexxGenerator xx System - Solar Thermal Energy Version
The FREEPOWER system has been developed as a cheap reliable alternative to photovoltaic systems. It consists of a micro turbine generator that is driven by a closed loop of working fluid. The working fluid is pumped by a small electrical pump through a solar array, where it is heated and vaporised. The vapor drives a micro turbine generator, and then condenses back to a liquid and the whole cycle recommences. A small ancillary circuit of the same vapor provides cooling for the alternator.

newton
Dish
Turbine Gear Box Tracker
* C. Christopher Newton's Thesis
This is a beautiful example of a Solar Dish Steam Turbine Electric Generator.
This was his masters thesis project.
Attached is a copy of his thesis paper which is on a concentrated solar thermal steam system.
In the appendices of the paper, you will find the diagrams for the steam turbine.
With the proper amount of steam supplied, the turbine is capable of 5 hp.

Note! His electric output is about 100W. The turbine output was about 500W. There was a major mismatch between the turbine and the generator. (He said he ran out of money.)

mikebrown
Mike Brown Engine
Mike Brown Engine * Mike Brown Solutions
Mike Brown Steam Engines and Alternative Energy Products.

greenteam
Green Steam Engine
Green Steam Engine * Robert Green
Introducing a new piston steam engine design for practical applications that is extremely efficient, economical and easy to build. Plans are now available.
(US patent # 6647813) 2003, Green.

stonepath
Stonepath power Systems Ltd.
* Manufacturer of low power electric generators that operate from wood or other fuels.

<sales@stonepathpower.com>
#9 - 4275 - 78Avenue S.E.
Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2C 2Y4
Telephone (403)-201-8555

I don't know if they do this stuff anymore though.

piston
Rankine piston engine generator.

The piston steam engine has a long track record. I can purchase a working modern 5hp steam engine from Jade Mountain. Unfortunately this is also too expensive for my system.

slamvalve
Slam Valve Motor * Slam Valve Motor
They have bash valve steam engines. These are made with a Harbor Freight air compressor pump 93785-3VGA.
<support@slamvalvemotor.com>

tinypower
Tiny Power * Tiny Power Steam engine kits.

reliablepiston
Reliable Steam Engine Co.
Reliable Steam Engine Co. * Reliable Steam Engine Co.
Very nice working piston type steam engines.

steam1910
steam1910 steam1910
I just bought this steam engine on EBAY
Live Steam Engine Lathe Bed Model
Early Lathe Bed Steam Engine
About 15" L and 6 1/2 T 1 3/4 stroke 1 bore with a locomotive style crosshead guide 4 1/2 x 1/2 flywheel with a 2 1/2 x 1" belt pully. Main frame is solid steel with and interesting curve to off set the crankshaft to allow for the crank pin disc to align with the crosshead. 90% of the bolts are square head. Valve pivot is brass also the cylinder. It has a flat steel base. Engine is tight as the day it was built and it runs extremely well. The weight is about 20 pounds.

This was built by Arthur Freeman who was the plant manager at the Lace Mill in Coventry RI around 1910. This was passed on to me from the man I bought it from and I have known him for years so I trust his info.

steamtwinboat
steamtwinboat
steamtwinboat steamtwinboat
I just bought another steam engine on EBAY
Twin Cylinder Steam Boat Engine
Requires cylinder heads, class as for restoration, 6 x 3 x 7 inches

bash
White Cliffs Solar Steam Engine * Erik Rossen quotes from The White Cliffs Solar Steam Engine report.

This is a very interesting uniflow steam engine with bash intake valves. It is built using components from a 3 cylinder Diesel engine. The steam is obtained from a large concentrating parabolic dish.

rotary
Rankine rotary expansion generator.
vane
Rotary steam vane expanders have been described by a company called:

"The Steam Outlet"
P.O. Box 1426
Thonotassassa, FL 33592
This company describes several engines and steam boilers.
Catalog $5.00

Another company is:
Reliable Steam Engine
P.O. Box 671
Waldport, OR 97394
(541)563-2535

scroll
Another type of expander is the scroll expander. This expander is essentially a refrigeration scroll compressor running backwards. Copeland has a web page that describes the operation of the compressor.

copeland
Click the Scroll Image to see the Animation.
Notice that in this Compressor Animation that a crescent shaped area is captured and compressed into smaller areas toward the center. This action is completely reversible when rotated in the opposite direction operating as an expander.

* Copeland Compliant Scroll Compressor Technology.
The Copeland scroll compressor is housed in a sealed canister. The scroll is connected to an integral induction motor. When operated as an expander the induction motor acts as an induction generator capable of generating AC power.
sanden
Sanden International (USA) Inc.
* Sanden is a company that makes automotive air conditioning scroll compressors.
organicrankine
Organic Rankine
* Organic Rankine is a company that studies scroll expanders.
airsquared
Air Squared
* Air Squared make Scroll Compressors and Expanders.
quoilin
Experimental Study and Modeling of a Low Temperature Rankine Cycle for Small Scale Cogeneration.
* A study of low temperature solar based heat engines using an Air Squared scroll expander.

denso
Denso vane compressors are made by Nippondenso. They makes automotive air conditioning moving vane compressors.

mitsubishi
Mitsubishi is a company that makes automotive air conditioning scroll compressors.

Edgar Moreno <empenter@caribe.net> supplied us with this table of OEM part numbers and automotive manufacturers that have scroll and vane air conditioning compressors.

Thanks Edgar!

acparts

* A/C Products
has an extensive listing of automotive make & model applications for air conditioning compressors, including scrolls.

truckair

* Truck Air Parts has some application information.

mkj

* M. K. J. Sourcing & Supply Ltd. has drawings of Sanden compressors.

* Sanden TRS090R3015 Stamped F90R

* Sanden TRS090A3016 Stamped F90P

* Sanden TRS090N3018 Stamped S90N/F90J

* Sanden TRS090P3019 Stamped F90P

* TRS090 Spare parts exploded view

* Sanden TRS105E3206 Stamped 105E

* Sanden TRS105R3211 Stamped S105R

* TRS105 Spare parts exploded view

fx105v
Disasemmbled Mitsubishi FX105V
The check valve that needs to be removed to allow operation as an expander.
Bearing and compliant eccentric mechanism.

autoscroll
Sanden Scroll Compressors
Model #OEM#MakeUsed in
TRF090(MOD.2050)-Honda
Honda
Honda
Honda
Honda
Hyundal
Accord 2.7 93-97
Civic 90-95
CRX 1.6 92-93
Del Sol 93
Prelude 92-93
Elantra 92-93
TRS090 Sanden OEM# 44950,44961 4595666
 
 
Chrysler
Honda
Honda
Cirrus 95-98
Accord 95-96
Honda Civic, Del Sol 93-96
TRS090 Sanden- Chrysler
Dodge
Ford
Honda
Honda
Honda
Mazda
Plymouth
Sebring conv 2.0 96-98
Stratus 2.0, 2.4, 2.5 95-98
Taurus 96-98 3.4L
Civic 1.6 92-98
Del Sol 93-95
Prelude 93-95
Protoge 95-98
Breeze 96-98
TRF105 - Dodge Vans
Saab
Full Size Series A, B, CB, MB, 92-94
98-99
Mitsubishi Scroll Compressors
Model #OEM#MakeUsed in
FX80MB630342
MB630342
Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
Montero 92-94
Pick-up 90-94
FX105V AKA201A201
 
 
 
 
 
AKA201A205
 
 
Chrysler
Dodge
Dodge
Eagle
Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
Plymouth
Plymouth
Vista
Colt 1.5, 1.6, 1.8 89-92
Stealth 3.0 91-93
Summit 1.5 89-92
Diamonte 3.0 91-93
Galant 2.0 89-93
Mirage 89-93, 89-94
Colt 1.5, 1.8 89-92
Colt 1.6 89-90
MSC90C- Chrysler
Dodge
Eagle
Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
Sebring 95-98
Colt 1.8 16V 94-95
Summit 1.5,1.8 93-93
Eclipse 98
Mirage 89-92
Mirage 1.5, 1.8 93-97
Denso Vane Compressors (Nippondenso)
Model #OEM#MakeUsed in
TV10C---
TV12C- Toyota
Toyota
Toyota
Mazda
Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Corolla GTS 87-91
Paseo 91-95
Tercel 86-94
Miata 89-93
Prism SL 88-92
Nova SL,4 Cyl 1988
TV14C- Toyota
Toyota
Corolla GTS with Power Steering 87-91
Tercel with Power Steering 86-88

If any of you have more information on these compressors would you be so kind as to tell me about them.

The big advantage of the Sanden and Mitsubishi automotive compressors over the Copeland is that it can be disassembled.


linkagemotion

* Brock Institute for Advanced Studies
Visual Java displays of mechanical linkage motions.

henry

* An interesting rotary engine useful with steam

sterling
Sterling Thermal Power
Originator of Non-Mechanical Feedpumps for Rankine Cycle Power Plants.
* Sterling Thermal Power has developed a thermally driven powerplant comprised of a heat collector, an evaporator for vaporizing a heated refrigerant, an ORC rotary valved piston engine for converting the heated refrigerant vapor into power, a condenser for condensing the vaporous refrigerant exhaust, and Sterling's proprietary motorless feedpump for recycling the spent refrigerant for re-use.
mailto:"Jeff Sterling" <info@sterlingsolar.com>
* Patent #US5685152
* Patent #US5974804
New 2 hp version.

lmmhd
Rankine LMMHD generator.
LMMHD Preliminary drawing of a solar powered LMMHD.

An interesting variation on the Rankine heat engine is the Liquid Metal Magnetohydrodynamic generator, or LMMHD. I have been studying these for several years and I think they may have good possibilities for generating electricity when used with my heliostat arrays.

Here are a bunch of patents that relate to this subject.

* US3878410: Two-phase liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator

* US4191901: Method and system for converting solar energy into electricity

* US4200815: MHD Generating system

* US4275318: Magnetohydrodynamic method and apparatus for converting solar radiation to electrical energy

* US4287443: Liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic converter

* US4388542: Solar driven liquid metal MHD power generator

* US5614773: Generator section of a two-phase flow liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic (LMMHD) generator

* US5637934: High expansion magnetohydrodynamic liquid metal generator of electricity

brayton
Brayton gas turbine generator.
I have done some experimentation with Brayton turbine engines. In order to learn about these engines I and Tim Roman <mustang2@pclink.com>, a friend of mine, built a jet engine using an automotive turbocharger. I learned a lot about Brayton engines from this setup. The primary conclusion was that the single stage turbines don't have enough compression ratio along with high enough efficiencies to be used at the low temperatures obtained from my heliostat array solar concentrators. Maybe some day, but they are not here yet.

capstone
Capstone.
While not solar powered, Capstone Turbogenerators makes a micro sized industrial turbine. This unit runs on a variety of fuels and is rated at 24KW electric.
Capstone * Capstone Turbogenerators.

microgen
GE MicroGen
GE MicroGen * GE MicroGen Gas Turbine Cogenerators.

igti
International Gas Turbine Institute.
IGTI * International Gas Turbine Institute.

turbtecbrayton
Turbine Technologies
Turbine Technologies * Turbine Technologies
Turnkey Propulsion Laboratory- Mini-Lab


rubber
The Rubber Engine Project.
Brayton piston engine generator.

I have experimented with a form of piston engine suggested to me by Gene Townsend called a rubber diaphragm piston Brayton engine. This rubber engine essentially is built from flat cone of silicon rubber backed by a shaped metal plate. This type of piston is completely sealed, a very desirable quality. I haven't had enough time to work on this engine to completion so I can't report on the how well it works. Gene suggests this construction technique would work better as a steam Rankine engine.

       Rankine type Rubber Engine
         Electrically Operated
             Intake Exhaust
              H | H  H | H
              H\|/H  H\|/H
        HHHHHHH - HHHH - HHHHHHH    H=Head
       H                        H   D=Diaphragm
      H                          H  B=piston Backer
     H                            H
HHHHH                              HHHHHH
DDDDDD   DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD   DDDDDDD
      D DBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBD D
       DB                      BD
       B                        B
      B                          B

          Rankine Flywheel Assembly
         FFF                    FFF
     NNN FFF                    FFF      F=Flywheel assembly
    BBBBBFFF                    FFF      N=Needle Bearings
    BBBBBFFF                    FFF      T=Thrust bearing
     NNN FFF                    FFF      B=piston Backer journal
         FFF T                T FFF
         FFF T NNNN      NNNN T FFF
         FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
         FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
         FFF T NNNN      NNNN T FFF
         FFF T                T FFF
         FFF                    FFF
         FFF                    FFF
         FFF                    FFF
         FFF                    FFF
         FFF                    FFF
--------------------------------------------------------

      Brayton type Rubber Compressor
          Exhaust Reed Valves
              RRRRR  RRRRR          R=Reed Valves
        HHHHHHH   HHHH   HHHHHHH    H=Head
       H                        H   D=Diaphragm
      H                          H
     H     Intake Read Valves     H B=piston Backer
HHHHH     RRRRR          RRRRR     HHHHHH
DDDDDD   DD   DDDDDDDDDDDD   DD   DDDDDDD
      D DBB   BBBBBBBBBBBB   BBD D
       DB                      BD
       B                        B
      B                          B

        Brayton type Rubber Expander
           Intake Reed Valves
              RRRRR  RRRRR          R=Reed Valves
        HHHHHHH   HHHH   HHHHHHH    H=Head
       H                        H   D=Diaphragm
      H           Bash           H  P=bash Pins
     H          P Pins P          H B=piston Backer
HHHHH     RRRRR P      P RRRRR     HHHHHH
DDDDDD   DD P DDDDDDDDDDDD P DD   DDDDDDD
      D DBB P BBBBBBBBBBBB P BBD D
       DB   P    Exhaust   P   BD
       B    P     Bash     P    B
      B     P     pins     P     B

              Flywheel Assembly
          FFF                    FFF
      NNN FFF                    FFF      F=Flywheel assembly
 NNN BBBBBFFF                    FFF      N=Needle Bearings
PPPPPBBBBBFFF                    FFF      T=Thrust bearing
PPPPP NNN FFF                    FFF      B=piston Backer journal
 NNN      FFF T                T FFF NNN  C=Compressor journal
          FFF T NNNN      NNNN T FFFCCCCC P=exhaust bash Pin eccentric
          FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFCCCCC
          FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF NNN
          FFF T NNNN      NNNN T FFF
          FFF T                T FFF
          FFF                    FFF
          FFF                    FFF
          FFF                    FFF
          FFF                    FFF


expander
Scroll Expander.
Rankine rotary expansion generator.

David Wells and I have discussed the use of these expanders for use in Rankine engines. Here is my concept. Take a Copeland Scroll Compressor complete with its 3 phase induction motor almost off the shelf. This complete assembly is in a sealed metal container. If high pressure gas is connected to the expander it rotates and applies torque to the induction motor. The induction generator can be directly connected to the power grid.

One disadvantage of using the Copeland unit is the inability to use steam. The induction generator and bearings are exposed to the working fluid. Steam will destroy these components. This requires fluids other than steam.

propane
I have chosen propane as it is low in cost and has about the right working pressure. Butane or pentane are also candidates. These fuel gases are a much better choice than the standard refrigerants primarily because of cost but also because they are non ozone depleting gases. The total system must be completely sealed to retain the gases.

These gases are compatible with refrigeration oils which are used for scroll and bearing lubrication. The oil is pumped from the low pressure sump to the inlet where it passes through the scroll. This pump operates continuously whenever the expander is turning to provide lubrication. Some of the oil will pass through the boiler as dissolved oil in the fluid and return as a mist which also passes through the scroll. The boiler must be designed properly to prevent oil accumulation. One method could be the use of float type oil separators in low trap sections that let the oil pass through to the boiler outlet.

A second pump pressurizes the condensate and injects it into the solar boiler. The quantity of fluid injected is regulated by the quantity of fluid in the boiler. The objective is to make sure that the boiler is not so full as to let liquid pass out of the boiler and into the expander. This would be called liquid slugging and is detrimental to the expander.

The oil used in the system must be capable of sustained operating temperatures in excess of 600 F. without deterioration.


boiler
Aluminium Solar Boiler.

The solar boiler has some special requirement and advantages over fired boilers.

One of the biggest advantages of the solar boiler is the absence of high temperature corrosive flue gases. If a fired boiler looses its water it could fail from high temperature weakening of the steel. The solar boiler will typically never get hot enough to be damaged.

One of the biggest problems is caused when the sun is intermittently covered by clouds. Fired boilers generally have steady heat inputs. A small amount of thermal storage in the collector is desirable.

Several people have suggested that the best solar boiler be constructed of large diameter stainless steel tubing wound into a loose coil of a few turns. This tubing is then cast inside a heat spreader of aluminum 2 inches thick. The aluminum has a large thermal mass which holds enough heat for several minutes of operation. The aluminum has high thermal conductivity which evens out the heliostat influx variations.

I am looking into aluminum casting shops to inquire about the cost of such a receiver. The shape for my system would be about 2.5 ft x 8 ft. If a boiler for a 12 ft dish was required the boiler could be about 2 ft in diameter.


diesel
Diesel Engines.
bio
Bio Diesel Engines.
Bio Diesel * Bio Diesel. The American farmer can help reduce our country's dependence on imported oil by using agricultural crops to produce energy.

* They call it "The Veggie Van" and they fuel it with used vegetable oil from fast food restaurants.


fuels
Heat Content of Fuels.

<Bob Gilbert> posted this responce to an inquiry on the alt.energy.homepower news group. Thanks for the info Bob.

The name is followed by a number which indicates millions of btu's released per unit (Million BTU/Unit). Assuming 100% burning efficiency ... which ain't gonna happen in real conditions. i.e. the figure for kerosene shows that with 100% burning efficiency one might get 131,000 btu's of heat per gallon.

Second number is the number of units one needs to burn to produce one million btu's, assuming the 3rd number .... which is average efficiency for all installed devices. Keep in mind, one might have a new natural gas furnace capable of much better than the 80% assumed in the figures I show. I do, for instance. However, overall, figuring all natural gas furnaces installed, 80% is a fair figure as an average. Recalculate the numbers if your stove, furnace, fireplace or whatever is a newer, better, more efficient device.

FuelMBtu/unitunits/MBtu @Efficiency
#2 Fuel oil0.143/gal8.7780%
Kerosene0.131/gal9.5680%
Charcoal0.0125/lb10775%
Coal, Anthracite26.3/ton0.05175%
Coal, Bitumenous, low volatiles28.7/ton0.04675%
Coal, Bitumenous, high volatiles24.7/ton0.05475%
Coal, Subbitumenous19.2/ton0.06975%
Coal, Lignite13.9/ton0.09675%
Apple29/cord0.063 low smoke
low spark
55% efficiency and average
20% moisture content
Aspen17/cord0.110 med smoke
hi spark
55% efficiency and average
20% moisture content
Cottonwood16/cord0.115 med smoke
low spark
55% efficiency and average
20% moisture content
Elm20/cord0.092 med smoke
med spark
55% efficiency and average
20% moisture content
Fir, Douglas26/cord0.069 hi smoke
med spark
55% efficiency and average
20% moisture content
Hickory28/cord0.066 low smoke
low spark
55% efficiency and average
20% moisture content
Maple22/cord0.084 low smoke
low spark
55% efficiency and average
20% moisture content
Oak26/cord0.069 low smoke
low spark
55% efficiency and average
20% moisture content
Pine, lodgepole17/cord0.106 med smoke
med spark
55% efficiency and average
20% moisture content
Pine, pinion31/cord0.058 med smoke
med spark
55% efficiency and average
20% moisture content
Pine, ponderosa19/cord 0.097 med smoke
med spark
55% efficiency and average
20% moisture content
Pine white15/cord0.125 med smoke
hi spark
55% efficiency and average
20% moisture content
Spruce, Englem16/cord0.114 med smoke
hi spark
55% efficiency and average
20% moisture content
Electricity0.003/kWh 30895%
Natural gas1.05/Mcf0.83980%
Propane2.53/Mcf
thousand cubic foot
0.580%
As the question always comes up as concerns propane as it is sold normally by the lb or gallon in liquid form. A gallon of propane is approx. 4.24 lbs. There are approx. 36.45 cubic feet of gas per gal (or 8.6 cubic foot per lb). In short, that .5 thousand cubic foot equals approx. 13.72 gallons of propane.


stirling
rausch
Stirling Engines.

Will Rausch <wrausch@lanminds.net> was kind enough to supply this list of Stirling engine links.

Thanks, Will, from all of us.

Not all the links work, but most do. Some may be off line at different times of the day or week. Have patience.

WILL'S LINKS for STIRLING ENGINE THIS IS THE START OF WILL'S STIRLING ENGINE LINKS.

neat
A link to my Stirling Patent page
http://www.redrok.com/neat.htm#stirling

filho
Stirling Enginer.Antonio Oliveira's model engines.
Stirling Enginer.Antonio Oliveira's model engines.

pm
PM Research Inc.
Working Model Steam Engine & Machine Tool Kits, Model Supplies and Finished Model Hot Air & Stirling Cycle Engines.
http://www.pmresearchinc.com/store/home.php

emachineshop
The E Machine Shop
An ultra low differental temperature Stirling engine, similar to Senft's, but with a rotary displacer.
Jim Lewis sells a kit of parts.
http://www.emachineshop.com/engine/index.htm

uwemoch
250 WATT-SHAFT POWER ENGINE
UWE MOCH Plans & Parts Available
http://www.uwemoch.de/

stirling-tech
5 HP STATIONARY ENGINE, STIRLING TECHNOLOGY HOME PAGE
http://www.stirling-tech.com/
5 HP PRODUCTION ENGINE
Multi & Solid Fuel Burners
Has built in air compressor to charge the system to operating pressure of 72psi
http://www.stirling-tech.com/stirling.htm

stirlingcycle
stirlingengine
AMERICAN STIRLING COMPANY
Down loadable Catalog
HOME PAGE
http://www.stirlingcycle.com/
http://www.stirlingengine.com/
HOW DO THEY WORK
http://www.stirlingcycle.com/how_do.htm
http://www.stirlingengine.com/how_do.htm
LINKS
http://www.stirlingcycle.com/links.htm
http://www.stirlingengine.com/links.htm

baileycraft
BAILEY CRAFTSMAN SUPPLY
Stirling Cycle Engine Kits
Books & Plans
Model Engineering
Links-To Related Sites
http://www.baileycraft.com/

exergia
EXERGA, PANCAKE SOLAR ENGINE ???
HOME PAGE
Stirling, Joule & Rankine Engines
http://www.exergia.de/wkm/wkm.html
STIRLING ENGINE
Explanation Of Theory & Construction
Mechanical Drawing
PHOTO OF ENGINE

kockums
KOCKUMS
HOME PAGE
This Company Builds Stirlings For 500 Ton French Research Submarines & The Royal Swedish Navy Submarines.
They Also Builds Automobile Stirling Engines.
Stirling Engines
http://www.kockums.se/
THE STIRLING PAGE
http://www.kockums.se/stirling.htm
KOCKUMS SUBMARINE SYSTEMS

malone
MALONE MODIFICATIONS - WATER AS WORKING FLUID
This is a unique and different design that may not be completely a Stirling Cycle
http://www.mech.ed.ac.uk/research/wavepower/malone.html

mit
MIT ???
STARTING PAGE
http://web.mit.edu/2.670/
TUTORIAL INCLUDING:
Power going to the engine
Heat transfer
LaPlace's Equation
Spreadsheet
Iterative Loops
Incorporating the piston
Calculating the theoretical input power

bekkoame
HOME PAGE - Plans - Theory - Info - Etc.
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/indexe.htm
MAP OF STIRLING ENGINE HOME PAGE
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/s_index.htm
WHAT'S NEW
Links, many new ones and other new info
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/what.htm
STIRLING ENGINES FOR BEGINNERS
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/begin.htm
VIEW OF MODEL STIRLING ENGINES
Contains Pictures, Descriptions & Mechanical Drawings
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/modele.htm
LSE-01
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/lse01e.htm
MSE-01
8 cylinder / 2 piston type
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mse01e.htm
MSE-02
5 Watt Class
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mse02e.htm
MSE-03
Variable Phase Angle Stirling Engine
Has 2 counter rotating output shafts
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mse03e.htm
MSE-04
Variable Stroke Engine
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mse04e.htm
MSE-05
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mse05e.htm
ROTARY DISPLACER TYPE STIRLING ENGINE
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/rotarye.htm
SECTION OF ROTARY DISPLACER
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/rot_se.htm
FREE PISTON TYPE STIRLING ENGINE
Much Info On How It Works
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/fpse.htm
BUILDING MODEL STIRLING ENGINES
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/make.htm
LET'S BUILD A CAN STIRLING ENGINE
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mk_can.htm
LSE-01
A 2 piston type, can run at 3K RPM
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mk_l01.htm
TSE-03
A 1 hour project
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mk_t03.htm
PLANS OF ROTARY DISPLACER TYPE STIRLING ENGINE
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mk_rot.htm
ESE-10
2 Piston type & runs @ 4K RPM
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mk_e10.htm
GALLERY OF ENGINES
Pictures of several models
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/gallery.htm
LINKS - OTHER STIRLING ENGINE WEB SITES
In groups by type of site, Models/Theory/Societies/Etc.
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/others.htm
OVERLAP VOLUME OF THE BETA TYPE STIRLING ENGINE
Theory & & Gas Flow In A Beta Engine
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/overlap/overlape.htm
HOME PAGE, ACADEMIC EDITION - UNDER CONSTRUCTION AS OF 6/98
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/academic/indexe.htm
DESIGH & PREFORMANCE PREDICTION METHODS FOR MINIATUREZED STIRLING ENGINE
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/academic/docpaper/indexe.html
STIRLING ENGINES OF SAITAMA UNIVERSITY
http://www.bekoame.ne.jp/~khirata/academic/kinki/home.html
BUILDING OF MODEL STIRLING ENGINE
Plans & Instructions
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/academic/seminar/indexe.html

STIRLING ENGINE OF SAITAMA UNIVERSITY
Intro.
5 Low Temp Differential Stirling Engines To 1KW Class
3 Hi Temp Differential Stirling Engines
The One Way Piston Ring
Analysis of Stirling Engines & Analysis Software
Model Engines Made By Staff & Students ???
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/academic/kinki/home.html
ECOBOY-SCM81 - 100 WATT CLASS STIRLING ENGINE
Several Developmental Situations
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/academic/kinki/indexe.html
SCHMIDT THEORY FOR STIRLING ENGINES
The Theoretical Thermodynamic Model For Starlings
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/academic/schmidt/schmidt.htm
SIMPLE PREFORMANCE PREDICTION METHOD FOR STIRLING ENGINE
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/academic/simple/simplee.htm

sunpower
SUNPOWER INC. ???
HOME PAGE
Has several papers, pictures/schematic, brochures online
http://www.sunpower.com

test-tube
TEST-TUBE STIRLING ENGINE
STARTING PAGE
Description of operation, Photos & Sketches, Etc.
http://www.webcom.com/sknkwrks/stirling.htm

little engine
THE LITTLE ENGINE PAGES
HOME PAGE
http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Launchpad/5465/

alamos
thermoacoustic
Thermoacoustic Stirling Engine
Backhaus-Swift engine
Department of Energy's Los Alamos National Laboratory
Energy-efficient engine with no moving parts.
Looks like a metal baseball bat.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/05/990527043210.htm
http://www.redrok.com/neat.htm#stirling
http://www.redrok.com/neat.htm#US5901556
http://www.redrok.com/neat.htm#US4953366

THIS IS THE END OF THE STIRLING LINKS.


thermoelectric
Thermoelectric generator.

thermionic
Thermionic generator.
Noble Physics 1928
The prize was reserved and awarded in 1929 to:
Richardson, Owen Willans, Sir, Great Britain,
b. 1879, d. 1959,
London University,
"for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him".

Thermionic generators produce electricity by heating one surface and cooling and removing heat from another surface. There is a vacuum between the surfaces or plates. The hot surface emits electrons from one plate called the cathode and collected on the other plate, the anode. These devices are governed by the heat engine limitations of Carnot. Further limitations are caused by the considerable work function of sending electrons across the vacuum and the poor quality of the electron emissions from the cathode.

Classically these devices required very high temperatures and has efficiencies of less than 1%. McDonald Douglas had done considerable work with thermionic generator at the focus of parabolic dishes.

A company that has made significant advancements in thermionic generators is
* Borealis Technical Limited. The major breakthrough is in improving the efficiency and cost reduction of the devices. Their devices have efficiencies approaching 20%.


generator
Electric Generators Made from 3Ø AC Induction Motors.

AC Induction Generator
Schematic of a Self Excited Single Phase AC Induction Generator built from a 3Ø AC induction Motor. This schematic is for a 50Hz 220VAC application.

While these generators look quite simple they do require careful planning and design. The primary problem is choosing the required shunting capacitors.

smith
The best book I have found for designing and correcting induction motors for use as induction generators is a small book:

Nigel Smith"Motors as Generators for Micro-Hydro Power"
Nigel Smith <nigel.smith@clara.net>
Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd.
103-105 Southampton on Row
London WC1B 4HH, UK.
ISBN 1 85339 286 3
82 Pages
Printed in the UK by The Russell Press Ltd.
amazon.com* Get the book here.

This book is packed full of practical, hands on, real world construction advice and still technical enough for one to be able to design and trouble shoot your own system.

Thank you Nigel.

Here is a link to another reference on induction generators (in Adobe PDF form):
* Operating 60 cycle induction generators.
* Wiring schematic.
* Capacitor selection chart.

And yet another:
* Portable Lightplants and Generators.
* An Easy to Build and Operate Induction Generator.


converter
motor
Run 3Ø AC Induction Motors on Single Ø and Starting Circuits.

None of these links work anymore.

Understanding and Selecting a Phase Converter
by Gary A. Werner, President GWM Corporation
* Phase Converters.


alternator
Some Alternator information.

The Homebuilt Dynamo: Dynamo Design and Construction with Ceramic Magnets
by Alfred T. Forbes
Pico Turbine * $65us (includes USA shipping) 182 pages (hard cover book), over 300 illustrations and photographs.

This is one of the most comprehensive books on the construction of alternators I know about.

* Portable Lightplants and Generators.

woodmill
Wooden Windmill * All Wooden Wind Generator.


intertie
netmetering
Grid Intertie Documentation.

ferc
ferc * FERC Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
Fow to get started

Parallel Operation of Customer-Owned Generation
Revision 2, July 1999
Northern States Power Company

nsp
NSP * NSP Intertie Document
Beware! This page takes a long time to load.
NSP * NSP Intertie Document
The whole scanned document in .ZIP form, about 9MBytes.
homepower
Home Power * Home Power
Net Metering laws by state.
omnion
Omnion Power * Omnion Power
Omnion Power Engineering Corporation has been developing advanced power systems, power system components, and system controls since 1971.
symcom
SymCom Motor Saver * SymCom Motor Saver
Model 601 is a fully programmable electronic voltage monitor designed to monitor three phase systems.


whrmeter
Watt-hour Meter Maintenance And Testing
Facilties Instructions, Standards, & Techniques - Volume 3-10 * Watt-hour Meter Maintenance And Testing
Watt-hour Meter Operating Principles And Construction

* Bureau of Reclamation

magnets
Permanent Magnets
Forcefield * Forcefield
Sellers of all ckinds of permanent magnets

<redrok@redrok.com>