I have, for many years, been thing about an automated brick layer or concrete placer. This has never worked out very well. Besides the energy costs for firing the bricks or burning the lime for the cement did not make sense.
Last night, 20030906, an inspiration came to me. Why not combine my passion for heliostats and the concept for an automated building machine. I thought of a number of variation. They all are based on melting glass with solar concentrators and some way of placing it. Here is a start:
|1||Melt the glass and drip it in geometric patterns. Something like the string of honey falling on bread. The pattern of the string is one of weaving back and forth to tie the layers together.|
|2||A kind of spider spineret that mimics the way the spider attaches and ties her silk. The glass fiber is smaller than the string dripping method.|
|3||A granular glass version of the the 3D prototype stereo lithography. In this case the granular glass is screed ed into the pattern with a solar concentrator melting and re-melting the grains together.|
|4||Closed cell foamed glass. The crushed glass stock is mixed with a chemical that will decompose into a gas at a high temperature. The process temperatures need to be well controlled. The chemical decomposition must not happen until a temperature is high and the glass consistency is very thin. At this time the gas is produced.
The foam is placed in a structural pattern. Various foam densities can be made depending on whether the foam will be structural or insulative. An advantage of closed cell foam glass is it's high R value, R=3.45. The gas that expanded the glass is at a partial vacuum when at low temperature, similar to the vacuum in structural glass blocks.
|5||Similar to foam but making glass foam beads expanded in a similar way to Styrofoam beads. In this case the glass beads are shot dropped through a very high temperature zone.|
|6||Resintering the surfaces of any of the above processes.|
All of this is based on the ability to send light to a concentrator to do the work of melting the glass. The receiver location will constantly be in motion delivering material. It would be advantages to have a single mirror. It would also be an advantage it the tracking was simplified. There are a number of heliostat types that could do the job:
|1||The Coelostat. A 2 mirror heliostat that has very simplified tracking.
Requires 2 mirrors.
|2||The receiver axis.
Medium complexity tracking but no computer.
|3||The standard T-pole.
Complex tracking and requires computer controls.
The final part of the solar system is the concentrator. This must be a form of a dish. Probably an off axis type to direct the output in a downward direction. This will be used to do the glass melting.
Search result 1 for your query pyrex And now for something completely different
From: feklar (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Subject: And now for something completely different
Date: 2003-03-21 04:34:06 PST
A new technology that will accomplish the following:
This technology allows all six billion people on this planet to have access to affordable heat, air conditioning, electricity, food, and fuel.
This is the first approach to large and very large scale solar power generation that is cost-effective. Before this technology, large scale solar power generation was not economically feasible. Obviously, in the United States, the oil and gas companies need to control this aspect of this technology, to avoid causing economic damage.
The housing that can be constructed lasts 100,000 years or more, is hurricane-proof, flood-proof, fireproof, and tornado-resistant. As a result, immense amounts of destruction and human pain and suffering are prevented.
The cost of housing is cut in half in the USA, and as low as a thirtieth the current costs in some third world countries. It brings the rest of the world up to the standard of living in the USA.
It will cause the greatest expansion of the U.S. economy and stock markets ever, solely as a result of cutting the cost of housing in half.
This is the first approach to large and very large scale biomass and hydrogen fuel generation that is cost-effective. The world's fuel supplies are running out. Oil first (50 years at most left worldwide: 1973 US DOE), then coal (300 years left in the USA: 1973 US DOE), then natural gas (1000 years left in the USA: Wall Street Journal). This technology guarantees an endless supply of fuel for the world via natural gas biomass or hydrogen fuel production, and an endless supply of electricity. Eventually, or in as little as 50 years, it can allow man to avoid cooking himself off the Earth as a result of the CO2 greenhouse effect, because it can generate as much solar power generated hydrogen fuel as man can use. In the USA, it keeps the fuel producing geography the same as it is now: biomass or hydrogen fuel is produced in the southernmost States.
This technology can allow the colonization of the Moon and Mars, and could be the beginning of man's expansion into space.
It can expand the total population capacity of the Earth to 100 times what it is now, or more, and would easily provide the fuel, food, and electricity to provide a high standard of living to all 6 trillion inhabitants.
Here is the original page: There are two or three concepts that are not explained on the page, that follow the page listing:
(5/26/01: version 1.1)
(5/26/01: important update: ultralightweight chambered foamed extruded structural pyrex: see end of page)
I invented a Pyrex extrusion technique that will allow large Pyrex panels to be extruded.
While this may seem like a small accomplishment at first, a closer examination reveals this to be one of the largest advances in the history of the human race. The basic technique is not at all complicated, although some modifications to the basic technique, like making foamed extruded Pyrex for improved strength and weight characteristics are more involved.
Let's begin with a lesser use of this machine, standard building construction. (For example, 24 by 40 foot by 8 inch thick Pyrex panels)
This machine allows houses and buildings to be constructed at less than half the cost of conventional construction methods.
Houses and buildings constructed with this material last (a very conservative estimate) 100,000 years.
Housing built from this material is fireproof, earthquake-proof, flood-proof, hurricane-proof, and tornado-resistant, and it never needs siding, paint or shingles.
While cutting the cost of most buildings in half, it will reduce the need for Federal disaster relief by 20 billion dollars a year, or 71 dollars a year for every man, woman, and child in the USA (the USA population is 280 million).
A category 5 hurricane (the strongest) cannot flood, damage, or destroy this type of building. Neither can F-1, F-2, or F-3 tornadoes. Only an F-4 or F-5 tornado (the rarest and most powerful) can damage a house so built, but it cannot destroy it. The housing can be made to duplicate the look of all present methods of construction, incorporating any standard architecture.
Normally, it is difficult to make large glass panels because the odds are great that a large panel will crack as it cools. I invented a concept which I call shock tempering, which will allow Pyrex to be extruded at a high rate of speed with no danger of the Pyrex cracking or developing faults because it is cooled too fast, which also imparts properties into Pyrex that are normally only found in metals.
Pyrex is standard glass which has borate compounds added to it. The concept of shock tempering uses a hot side and a cold side, spraying small molten Pyrex droplets from the hot side and Pyrex dust or tiny broken Pyrex shards frozen to the temperature of liquid Nitrogen from the cold side. The exact ratio has yet to be determined through experimentation, but is likely near 20 percent cold and 80 percent hot.
Any glass contracts when it cools, and if cooling occurs too fast, the glass will develop stresses and crack. However, cold glass expands when heated, and can counteract the contraction of the hot glass.
The technique also has the effect of randomizing the internal structure of the glass to a very high degree, preventing the large polarized crystal planes normally found in glass that cause stress failures (cracks) from ever forming in the first place.
It should be obvious that such a machine can be built, because materials exist that can stand up to the high temperature of molten Pyrex. If this were not true, then Pyrex coffee pots, baking dishes, test tubes, extruded Pyrex rod, etc... could not be manufactured. Given that these materials do exist, it is simply a question of how best to put them to use, and large numbers of variations of the basic concept are possible. A machine to extrude flat panel would be different in geometry and size and speed than one designed to travel through the desert, feeding itself sand.
If Pyrex baking dishes can be manufactured, then you know as fact that Pyrex bricks can be manufactured, and then permanently welded together into houses and schools with torches and lasers. This approach would still cost less than half what the same structure normally costs.
As for the floors, even if you had to use Pyrex bricks that were welded together, they would still have the strength to support 4 king sized waterbeds on the second floor of a house.
Pyrex has the structural strength required. Take a Pyrex baking dish and feed it to an automobile crusher at the junkyard, and note how much hydraulic pressure it takes to crush it. I say it can be done with large shock tempered Pyrex panels, but if you are unsure, there is absolutely no doubt whatsoever that it can be done with Pyrex bricks.
Extrusion of large panels is better because it is much faster, much less labor intensive, much stronger, and I like it because you can let a computer control the ejection nozzles to alternate tints, like green and white to simulate jade, or white and black to simulate marble.
I say that for $50,000, I can build the frame, roof, walls, floors, and ceilings of an 8 bedroom house with an attached 5 car garage, and that this house and three of the garage stalls would be flood-proof, and all of it would be earthquake-proof, fireproof, termite-proof, hurricane-proof and tornado-resistant.
This house would have 8 inch thick Pyrex outer walls, 2 ½ inch thick Pyrex floors and roof, 1 inch thick Pyrex inner walls, with a 3 ¾ inch space in between the inner and outer walls that holds 3 ½ inch thick Pyrex slugs with rubber seals that slide out to cover the door and window openings in case of flood or hurricane.
A locking mechanism as simple as a spring-loaded 'T' shaped steel bar locks these slugs to the outer walls so that any exterior impact or force is transferred to the outer load-bearing walls, not the inner 1 inch thick walls. One simply slides the slugs over the openings, inserts the T-bars from the outside, attaches the springs and locks from the inside, and then pushes and twists the T-bars to lock the slugs onto the outer walls. A generator is installed in the garage, and 2 sump pumps are installed between the walls to pump out water from between the inner and outer walls in case one or more of the seals should fail. Even the cars and tools inside the garage are safe when a Category 5 hurricane strikes. Bored with watching the hurricane, you use your generator to watch pre season football from your mini-dish inside the roof.
Whether bricks or flat panel were used, the costs would be 2 dump truck loads of sand valued at $1200, $2000 worth of energy, $2000 worth of excavation, $200 worth of additives, $2000 worth of equipment payments, $1000 worth of equipment maintenance and repair, $15,000 for government regulations, programs, and taxes, and $25,000 in labor ($35,000 labor if bricks)
It would take one week to build this structure. The structure would only include half of the final interior walls, half of the plumbing (Pyrex pipe), no wiring, no windows, doors, carpeting, fixtures, appliances, or cabinetry. Still, the $50,000 builds what it would cost $200,000 to build using any other conventional construction method, in 1/10 to 1/30 the time.
I pull up to the job site with my two semi trucks and their flatbed trailers. I offload the excavation equipment and set it to work digging out a basement. I offload a small crane, numerous large-footed jacks, a tamping machine, and the pyrex extrusion machine. I set the tamping machine to work tamping down an area of dirt until the dirt is pounded down solid as a rock. The tamping machine runs for 24 hours, and this ends the first day of construction.
The second day, I back the two trailers onto the hardened dirt, and unfold the steel plates from the beds. I use the jacks to hold these plates (and the trailers themselves) up and level them out, so the trailers are transformed into two 24 foot by 40 foot extrusion tables.
I then use the crane to set the 24 foot long extrusion machine back on one of the extrusion tables, and I set it to work. I use a temporary forming plate to begin building up the extrusion, and the frozen and molten pyrex are sprayed onto that. After the extrusion starts, further extrusion gets sprayed onto the pyrex already extruded. This begins and continues building up the extruded pyrex panel. Carried slightly above the surface of the extrusion table by the crane, the machine moves down the length of the table, laying down the panel as it travels. After one panel is finished, the machine travels back to the other end, laying down a thin sheet of steel foil as it travels, to separate the panels and keep them from adhering to each other.
24 hours later, the two extrusion tables contains four 8 inch thick 24 by 40 foot panels and one 1 inch thick panel, four 2 1/2 inch thick panels and 5 one inch thick panels. The panels are allowed to cool for 48 hours.
If you believe that the weight would be excessive, it would be, but read further below (at the end of the page) regarding foamed and foamed chambered pyrex. The weight of these types of panels is 1/5 to 1/2 that of solid panels. For now, the description will concentrate on solid panels.
On the fifth day, the panels are removed and cut into the appropriate sizes and shapes with water nozzles. Machines that use high pressure water nozzle technology exist that are currently being sold on the open market. The extremely high pressure water that is ejected from these nozzles is capable of cutting through four inches of solid steel. Artificial diamond dust nozzle sandblasting may be a less expensive alternate panel cutting method.
The panels are assembled in the appropriate configuration, and work begins welding the panels together with lasers and torches. Although the panels are tinted, there are certain frequencies of light that will pass right through the panel as if the tint was not present. (This might be a good motivation for painting, paneling, or carpeting the interior walls, so no one with a special camera can see through your house.)
A laser emitter at the proper frequency produces a beam which is focused to a 8 ( or 2 1/2 or 1) inch thin line rather than to a point, and this line is reflected 90 degrees slightly before it's focus convergence point. This produces a device that emanates a 3 1/2 inch beam in the form of a focused line of laser energy that emanates straight out from the front of the device. Consider Luke Skywalker's or Darth Vader's light sword, but only 8 inches long, much thinner, and far less powerful...
This device is applied to the joints between the panels, and slowly slid down the entire length of the joint. This permanently fuses the panels together. A simple butt joint suffices, as any other type provides little if any structural advantage, considering the strength of the weld. This is the same principle used in metal welding.
Torches are then used to finish any weld not completely done by the lasers, and to smooth the welds so they are not easily visible or obvious. This also denies the future passage of water into any small deficiencies in any of the welded joints, which could in some climates be a source of trouble if it froze and expanded. Extra tinted Pyrex can be added at the joints to fill small indentations or for tint correction
Wiring and plumbing: either high pressure water nozzles or a diamond-bit router is used to route channels into the walls. In the case of plumbing, the routed depth is half the diameter of the pipe. The wiring or pipe is then laid in the routed channel, and a Pyrex cover is put in place over it. In the case of wiring, a filler piece of pyrex is inserted into the channel flush with the wall surface.
Although there are many other small details, the general idea should be apparent by now. Realistically, it would take a week and a half to two weeks to get the job done, but it could be done in a week.
A house built this way, properly sealed in the event of an oncoming hurricane or flood, with a vent pipe extending from the roof and a power generator in the garage with a sufficient fuel supply, can be completely covered with water for weeks, and not a single drop of water will pass the inner walls into the house or the garage.
This method creates more jobs and employment than it destroys. If you are only paying half what it would normally cost to buy a house, what are you going to do with all that extra money? Instead of being so hard up for cash that you have to buy a junk $99 self-assembled home entertainment center it took some low paid worker 15 minutes to puke out of particle board machine, you will want to spend $1250 on a solid oak entertainment center it took a skilled craftsman a week and a half to build. Which provides more employment? There would be far less framing carpentry work. However, given the choice, any carpenter would much prefer to perform skilled craftsmanship than to build house frames.
The need for roofers would be reduced and eventually eliminated entirely. This is nothing but progress, because you don't see many old roofers. Working on a 160 degree roof takes its toll on those people. If a similarly high paying job came along, any roofer would take it over roofing. Roofers will have to find something else to do. All the money that exists now to be spent will still exist. It will just be spent differently. More people will have more free money as the cost of housing is reduced, and this will create at least as many jobs as it destroys. Many of these jobs will be higher paying than the job that had been eliminated, as in the carpentry example above.
Housing is the lesser aspect of this invention. The major aspect is described below. Somewhere in between these levels of impact lies in undersea construction, for example transportation tunnels. This technology could have built the tunnel under the English Channel for a fraction of the cost it took.
Doubling the size of Japan or Great Britain by siphoning sand of the ocean floor is another potential aspect. Colonization of the moon or mars is possible as a result of this invention, if the current studies show that there is enough water at the poles.
Perhaps eventually these will turn out to be major aspects of the impact of Pyrex extrusion. But for now, the major aspect is terraforming worthless desert on this planet, because it solves the coming energy shortage.
The government has spent more than 100 billion dollars on nuclear fusion research, and accomplished nothing. It has been known for 30 years that vast amounts of electricity could be generated with solar power, but a huge area had to be covered with collectors or converters, which was far too expensive to even consider. The pyrex extrusion machine has the capability to overcome this obstacle.
For a million and a half dollars in startup costs, and the land rights to half of New Mexico and Arizona, I could turn that entire area into a massive solar power generation facility, capable of supplying 85 percent of the total U.S. demand for electricity, and it would only take me 50 years, without any additional investment beyond the initial million and a half. Like nuclear fusion, it harnesses the power of the very sun, but it also turns that entire area into a huge hydroponics growing facility, and also covers the entire area with two levels of solar power cooled living, manufacturing, and industrial space. It can provide electrical power 24 hours a day, spinning up 20 ton glass extruded flywheels during the day and spinning them back down at night. The desert is made of sand. Glass is made of sand. Pyrex is glass that has (inexpensive ’20 Mule Team’) borate compounds added to it. A percentage of the hydroponics growing facilities will produce biomass crops, for conversion to natural gas both for sale, and to generate electricity during periods of extended cloud cover.
With passive solar, (massive water tanks heat storage), one can only get water hot enough to boil directly from incident solar power for an hour ot two on a few of the hottest days of the year in the lower latitudes, mid-Texas and south in the USA. However, Carbon Tetrachloride, a common, inexpensive, non-toxic, stable chemical used mainly as a dry cleaning agent, boils at only 79 degrees C rather than the 100 degrees C it take to boil water. Carbon Tetrachloride Steam driven turbines and pumps can rotate generators to provide electricity. Most of the parts, the tanks, the piping, even the turbine cores, bodies, and blade assemblies, can be fabricated from pyrex. The generator bodies and armatures can also be, but the generators also require copper and iron ferrite.
From about Oklahoma southwards, even in only 50 or 60 percent sunlight in cloudy conditions, the latitude is low enough to boil Carbon Tetrachloride in triple insulated glass holding tanks. The best approach is to use massive extruded water storage tanks, and smaller CT tanks, and use the heated water to boil the CT.
This provides about 1/2 of the total power generation potential. The other half comes from a solar/wind design built into the extrusion.
Say I have the land rights to half of Arizona and New Mexico, and a million and a half dollars.
I would start by using about somewhere near half that ($500,000 to $750,000) to design and build the first generation Pyrex extrusion machine. The machine would then be built and put into operation at the edge of this territory.
The machine would travel through the sagebrush, filtering out trees and plants with gates and screens, allowing only dirt and sand to pass into the machine. The need for a machine with tracks rather than wheels is obvious.
The sand and dirt are then preheated and superheated to melting, and pass through numerous filtering stages and centrifuges to remove the unwanted bottom and top level slags, similar to steel refining.
By the time the sand passes these filtering stages, it is nearly pure silicon, and the borate compounds are then added.
Part of the machine extrudes multiple strands of thin (say about 3 / 64th inch) pyrex rod and rapidly freezes it and breaks it into tiny shards.
When the machine is first engaged, a form is used as an extrusion surface, and the extrusion gets sprayed onto the form. From that point, the extrusion gets sprayed onto what has already been built up, frozen pyrex from the cold side, and molten pyrex droplets from nozzles on the hot side. This is done in a potassium rich atmosphere to add strength and prevent atmospheric condensation from forming on the frozen shards.
A cooling system cools down the extrusion tunnels (where the pyrex which has already been extruded is passing as the machine moves along). The pyrex is not cooled down to normal atmospheric temperature, only enough ( a few hundred degrees) to give it enough strength to stand on it's own as it passes out of the machine. This also prevents the extrusion from adhering to the walls of the extrusion tunnels.
Another section of the machine would be turning out turbine and generator parts.
This first generation machine would leave single story buildings behind it as it traveled along, comprised of only a large triple insulated water tank with pipes to carry CT running through it, with a smaller CT tank inside the water tank.
An example might be a 8 x 10 foot cylindrical (oval) tank inside a 10 x 12 clear cylindrical greenhouse inside a 12 x 14 foot clear cylindrical greenhouse inside a 14 x 16 foot clear cylindrical greenhouse.
The machine would have an automatically (remotely) reconfigurable nozzle assembly and slide plate assembly so that sections of this structure can be extruded and the ends sealed off. At the end of a length of section, the nozzles would reconfigure and spray the end closed by sliding the slide plate carrying the nozzles from one end to the other after retracting the extrusion tunnels..
This way, any trouble in one section does not affect any other, and it provides attachment points for the turbines and generators.
This method of construction is not inexpensive; electricity costs to power the machine are likely to cost $250 an hour or more.
However, soon enough power is being generated from the turbines to supply power to the machine, and it can disconnect from the power grid and become self-contained.
Soon after this, the sale of electricity to the nation power grid begins, and income is realized. After two years, enough income is realized to build a second machine. Within four years, 4 machines are operating. At the end of eight years, 16 machines will have been creating these power generation assemblies, and truly respectable amount of proceeds from the sale of electricity will have been realized. This builds up a respectable 'war chest' of finances to build and design the second generation machine.
The second machine makes the first one look like an idiot joke in comparison. Visualize the machine they use to haul the Space Shuttle out to the launch pad from the Vehicle Assembly Building, and you get some idea of the scale of the second generation machine, although this machine will be even larger than the Space Shuttle carrier.
The second generation machine stops screwing around and starts leaving 7 story tall buildings behind it as it travels through the desert feeding itself sand and dirt. Each level is wider than the level above it. Imagine steps.
The top level is wide enough to drive an automobile through. The next lower level will be wide enough to drive two automobiles through, and the roof of the next lower level will provide two outer floors on this second level, one on each side of the level, each being wide enough to drive an automobile on top of, and so forth. The third level will be wide enough to drive three or four automobiles through, again having the roof of the next lower level for use as roadways on either side.
The bottom level will be totally underground, the level above that being halfway underground. The flat roofs of each level except the bottom level can provide another purpose beside being used for roadways. The surface can be deeply grooved, and the grooves can store water, making each roof a swamp cooler. When water evaporates, it carries large amounts of heat away with it. There is plenty of information regarding the principles of operation of swamp coolers available on the internet. It is a natural air conditioning method that can keep the temperatures inside the lower three levels down below 75 degrees, even when the temperature outside is 120 degrees.
The top two levels will house CT power generation. The two below that will provide hydroponic gardens with climate control capabilities which are capable of growing anything from winter wheat to pineapples and coffee, even at latitudes as high as Montana or as low as Mexico. The technology behind hydroponics is also widely available on the internet. This can provide a completely controlled environment: no weeds, no pests, and complete artificial climate regulation.
The three bottom levels provide living, manufacturing, industrial, and transpiration space. The bottom level serves an additional purpose, cool or cold air storage.
In the daytime, heated air rises out of vents in the upper levels of the extruded structures. Cool air from the bottom level moves up to replace it, though strategically designed and placed air shafts, turning wind generators as it rises. It can be shown by inexpensive demonstration that impressive rates of airflow can be obtained, and a 40 mile per hour wind generated in these air shafts, if they are few in number and aerodynamically designed. 40 mph is the speed at which a wind generator operates at its highest efficiency. The wind speed is controlled by the number of wind generators operating. To slow down the wind speed, more blades are brought on line, and to reduce it, blades on some of the generators are feathered, shutting down the generator. Although the number of individual generators is not great, a respectable amount of power can be produced this way. A rough visualization example might be 15 wind generators in each of three air shafts, per linear mile of extrusion. Any more than this would slow down the airflow too much, and cause inefficiency.
At night, vents on the lower level that were slightly opened in the daytime are fully opened on to let the cool nighttime air into the lower level. If designed properly, a smaller amount of reverse airflow generation is possible this way.
This construction and power generation model would be unthinkable with any other construction method, but it can easily and inexpensively be implemented with the Pyrex extrusion machine.
At any rate, the same financial model holds for the second generation machine: First one, then two, then four, then eight, then sixteen, then 32 extrusion machines. 50 years is a very conservative estimate. It can probably be done in 40 years.
An important point is that the layout and design has to be right the first time, because the structures that are extruded may well still exist long after the Pyramids have turned to dust and blown away. A mistake made early on cannot easily or inexpensively be corrected. The internal transportation networks on the lower levels are a perfect example of this. A pneumatic tube delivery system can easily be implemented, but it needs to be designed with a future in mind.
This can make it possible for you to use the internet to place an order at Taco Bell, and have it show up at your residence three minutes later. It make make taking out the trash as easy as dumping it into a compartment in the wall, where it disappears and is never seen again. Remember, the upper levels adsorb the majority of the solar radiation, the lower levels have tinted roofs, and the swamp coolers provide air conditioning. To keep the temperature at 70 degrees, only rarely would an electrical air conditioning system have to be used. To keep the temperature at 75 degrees, an electrical air conditioning system would never have to be used. There is plenty of heated water storage to provide heat at night.
This technology can allow for huge areas of otherwise worthless land, desert and sagebrush in Texas, Oklahoma, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico, to be converted into some of the most productive land in the United States.
Huge climate controlled storage tanks can inexpensively be produced that can house hydroponics farms, conventional soil farms, or marine biomass and fish farms. The ocean can be reproduced on a smaller scale inside massive clear cylindrical storage tanks, and the temperature and aeration precisely regulated to accommodate almost any form of marine life. This can easily take the proven concept of high natural gas production rate marine biomass technology and make it land-based. Do not underestimate this, because it can solve the energy problems of the USA, permanently.
Very satisfactory results have come out of the marine biomass research farm programs, but this is an immense improvement. Giant sea kelp in a controlled environment, free from natural hardships and predators, and kept at the optimum growing temperature, should easily far exceed its already impressive growing rate of 2.5 feet per day.
Thermal reflective shielding (shading), either manually or automatically moved, can precisely dictate how much solar energy is allowed into the tanks and how much is blocked. Even if very dark clouds blocked the sun for months in the dead of winter in a mid-Utah based installation, a high enough temperature (130-140 degrees) to kill the kelp would be reached if the shields were fully retracted. (For this reason, the design would prevent the shields from ever being retracted that far...) Marine biomass would be superior to land based plant biomass, because the growing temperature can be higher, and the growth rates much more impressive. However, land-based ethanol crop production from high energy content plants is also an alternative.
In any case, the environments can be carefully controlled, free of parasites, with only beneficial life forms present. It also constitutes a segmented architecture, in that a problem in one tank is not likely to be transmitted to other tanks. In the far future, with marine tanks, when the electrical production is up to its full potential, microwaves can sterilize the circulating water, and only the desired life forms can then be selectively introduced. In the near future, microwaves can sterilize a given tank in which a problem may have developed, for example a corn blight that occurs from a random contamination can be limited in scope to a single tank among thousands, and sterilized as soon as it is detected rather than spreading to the rest of the acreage.
If this technology is carried to anywhere near its full potential, the truly immense amounts of natural gas and ethanol that can be produced this way can easily meet the demand for electricity when the sun is covered by clouds, with enough left over to meet the entire U.S. demand for natural gas.
The potential of the Pyrex extrusion machine to affect society is immense. It is capable of providing for man long after the oil runs out (we have about 25 to 60 years’ worth left worldwide) and the coal runs out (the USA has 300 years left).
Don't underestimate that trouble coming, soon enough.
Editing: this needs to be moved to another file: What follows is not immediately relevant to pyrex extrusion.
Because I have claimed to have a spiritual goal to be an inventor, if you feel some bizarre need to judge me because of my lack of saintliness, judge me on my accomplishments as an inventor. Compare the efforts of the Church in Africa with my efforts. The church sends free food to an area that cannot support the people it already has, and the people there breed like rabbits. 20 years later we see hideous massacres like the recent one in Rwanda, truly immense amounts of human suffering. Millions were raped, killed, and tortured.
My solution? Africa holds the Sahara desert, the largest depository of silicon on the face of the earth. The glass extrusion technology can take Africa in general, basically some of the most worthless land on the face of the earth, and turn it into some of the most valuable, and bring its citizens up to the standard of living we enjoy in the United States, allowing them to provide for themselves. This is the difference between giving a man a fish and teaching him to fish.
When the oil runs out in the Middle East, without the Pyrex extrusion technology, you would have many desperate countries with no substantial assets except millions of people who blame their economic problems on the USA, and stockpiles of chemical and nuclear weapons.
With Pyrex extrusion technology, the Middle East would have the ultimate trading arrangement, because the hydroponics gardens that can be truly inexpensively produced from the desert sand can rival the crop output of Iowa or California, and you have the Russians, who have vast quantities of raw materials such as iron and copper and aluminum, but always have food shortages. The perfect trading arrangement. I really ought to get the Nobel prize, regardless that I had assistance from the gods to invent it.
I doubt it would hurt America much, because in the rare cases the Russians actually pay the USA for our grain exports, they don't pay us much. This one invention is capable of preventing truly immense amounts of human pain and suffering. The main directive of both Buddhism and the Bible is that your main responsibility as a human is to reduce, prevent, or eliminate human pain and suffering. Considering what I have invented, my accomplishments in this respect are truly immense.
70 years after this technique has been possible, I finally invent it. It isn’t even that advanced a concept, and there have been tens of thousands of people who have worked manufacturing and designing Pyrex products. The vast majority of the knowledge I possess that allowed me to invent it, I learned in basic metallurgy in high school metal shop and in high school chemistry class.
I took proof of what Minnesota pulled with my driver’s license to the Minnesota Attorney General's office. Their decision to defend the criminal activities of the Minnesota government rather than the rights of the people has caused at least an 8 year delay in the development of the Pyrex extrusion technology, a loss of $568 for every man, woman, and child in the USA. It is certain that the criminal activity occurring in the first place caused an even longer delay.
If Minnesota government criminals hadn’t got in the way, I would likely have at least a half a million of these houses constructed in hurricane territory by now. As it is, with the damage that was caused, I have only been able to reach a small fraction of my original potential as an inventor.
Had it not been for that, I should have had half a million hurricane proof houses built by now, if not more. This cost you what I said it did above, as a bare minimum, but it is likely that the damage has cost you a lot more than that, and will cost even more if it doesn’t get repaired, because I won’t invent a tiny fraction of what I should have been able to invent. So far, Minnesota saved their taxpayers about 20 cents each by siding with criminal scum against me and the gods. It only cost everyone in the USA at least $568 dollars each. Typical government efficiency…
A more advanced use of the extrusion techniques is the manufacture of foamed Pyrex. Foaming pyrex can increase the strength and greatly reduce the weight of the panels or extrusion.
When glass is coated with molten potassium, it increases the breaking strength of the glass 8 times over. Normally potassium cannot be put inside glass, because potassium turns to a gas at the temperature of molten glass. A method exists with the Pyrex extrusion machine however that can put potassium inside the glass. The technique can also be used to foam the pyrex, greatly reducing its weight while at the same time dramatically increasing its strength.
This is accomplished by producing having the machine mass produce millions of microminiature potassium filled Pyrex bullets to shoot from the cold side. A conveyor belt setup with multiple racks can be used, with each rack carrying an injection mold to produce tiny bottles, with alternating rows of bottle molds and cap molds.
As the racks move towards the front of the machine, the molds are filled with molten pyrex and rapidly cooled. Since the size of the molded bottles is very small, say 1/16th inch by 3/32nd inch or smaller, the mold cooling can be fairly rapid, with little danger of breakage. A small percentage of breakage would still be acceptable.
After the molded pieces are cooled and solidified, they are filled with a set small amount of potassium, and the row of caps next to each row of bottles is flipped over on top of the bottles and pressed down to press-fit lock onto the bottles.
The variables are the size of the bottles (bullets), the thickness of the walls of the bullets, and the amount of potassium contained inside.
When these bullets are shot from the cold side, they will contact the molten pyrex being applied from the hot side, and will soften and partially melt. With the increase in temperature, the potassium inside will expand and partially turn into gaseous state, expanding the walls of the partially melted bullets. This will form what amounts to bubbles inside the extrusion.
If there is too much potassium or the walls of the bullets are too thin, the bullets will expand like balloons and explode. If there is too little potassium or the walls are too think, there will not be enough expansion and not enough empty space with the extrusion will be formed. In any case, for structural panel manufacturing, absolute precision is not required, and it would be acceptable if as many as 10 or even 20 percent of the bullets exploded, so long as the error is on the expansion side, rather than not enough expansion.
This is but one method out of many possible approaches. As stated above, just coating glass with potassium increases its resistance to impact 8 times over. It should be interesting to see what effect putting potassium inside glass will have. Potassium seems to have the effect of plugging up the loose chemical or crystal ends in the crystal structure of glass, making it impossible for a fracture to originate from that bonding point.
In this example manufacturing / foaming method, as well as any other that attempts to place potassium inside glass or pyrex, the much heated potassium will migrate throughout the crystal structure of the extruded panel. This should impart a much greater load bearing capability to the panels. It should also add a very slight amount of flexibility to the panels, greatly increasing resistance to work-hardening and repeated stress or impact failures.
It is assumed that with any pyrex extrusion, whether solid or foamed, that the extrusion will be coated with potassium, to increase its strength and lifespan.
Solid pyrex will have better optical properties than foamed, where the foamed will have less desirable optical qualities but will be far superior in structural applications. In the example of the 7 story tall extrusion described earlier, foamed structural pyrex would be used in the lower weight supporting levels, and non foamed would used in the upper solar power and hydroponics gardens / biomass fuel generation levels. Even using foamed pyrex, the huge solar heat storage water tanks on the upper levels would have to supported with massive foamed pyrex internal structural pillars (produced as part of the extrusion), because of the great weight of both the water and the solid upper level pyrex.
The technique described here can allow for potassium to be put inside glass, into the internal crystal structure, something which has heretofore been impossible because of the gas temperature of potassium versus the melting temperature of glass or pyrex. This would indicate that other heretofore impossible additives are now possible, and some of these may well produce large improvements in load bearing, stress resistance, strength, weight, longevity, and other characteristics.
Ultralightweight chambered foamed extruded structural pyrex
There exist structural glass building blocks, known as glass privacy brick or block, that you can buy at your local building supply center. You have certainly seen these from time to time. Many times they are used as windows in gasoline stations, allowing light to enter the restrooms but no image to pass to the outside. In the movie 'Pulp Fiction', one of the scenes shows a two or three story wall constructed of these structural glass blocks. These are not potassium enriched, and they are not pyrex, and therefore not nearly as strong as potassium enriched pyrex. They are hollow, with 3/16 inch thick walls for 4 inch block, and 5/16 for 8 inch block.
As commonly used, these blocks are mortared or cemented together. However, they could also be welded together with lasers or torches.
A vast improvement in the extrusion process can be realized by using something similar to these blocks, and welding them together. This can cut the amount of material and therefore the cost of electricity to melt the sand in half or more.
This also significantly reduces the weight of extruded structural walls, as much as to 25 percent of what a solid wall to bear the same load would weigh. There are also stress resistance advantages, and fracture pattern advantages. In solid pyrex, if a powerful enough impact were struck, a crack could form that could traverse the length of the panel, but this is almost impossible with ultralightweight chambered foamed extruded structural pyrex.
The main advantage is the improvement in the strength to weight ratio. The weight of a wall could be cut by two thirds, but the thickness would only need to increase about an extra 20 percent.
These blocks can be manufactured on the fly as required, and then welded together using foamed extruded pyrex as the adhesive. What follows is one possible example of such a process.
Imagine four standard size pool tables, arranged side by side with the long sides parallel. This is a good example geometry. In some cases, there would be advantages to using pyramids rather than cubes, because of the pyramid's natural inherent strength characteristics. Pyramid panel will weigh somewhat more than cubical panel. This example will explain the manufacture of cubical panel. The technique is only slightly more complicated for pyramid panel. This example will describe the manufacture of cubical panel using three inch cubes.
The two tables on the ends are molding tables. Both use two piece molds, a top and a bottom half.
Table 1 will produce hollow pyrex cubes that have only five sides.
For table 2 in the center, imagine a pool table that has bumpers only 1/4 inch high, rather than the standard two inches high around the top of the table. In other words, table 2 is a 1/4 inch deep tank (no pockets), resting on a platform similar in size and shape to a standard pool table.
For table 3, imagine that the top of the table is flat, and resembles a sparsely populated bed of nails, with small 1/4 inch diameter posts sticking up, about three inches high, about every 6.5 inches or so in a square pattern.
Table 4 will produce the missing sixth side. These are tables 1 and 4.
The distances between and relative orientation between the four tables is fixed.
For table 1, the bottom half of the mold will be the match to the outside of the cube surfaces, and will contain a square grid of three inch by three inch square depressions. This will somewhat resemble a half of a waffle iron mold.
The top half of the table 1 mold will match the inner hollow surface of the cubes, and will contain a square grid of cubical protrusions, each measuring 2 and three-quarter inches square.
When mated, they will produce five sided 3 inch by 3 inch by 2 and seven eighth inch hollow pyrex cubes with 1/8 inch thick walls.
For table 4, the bottom half will contain a grid of 1/16th inch deep 3 inch by three inch square depressions, and the top half will also contain a grid of 1/16th inch deep 3 inch by three inch square depressions. When mated, they will produce the sixth side of the cubes (1/8th inch by 3 inches by 3 inches).
The top half of the table 4 mold will be a two piece mold. In the top half of the mold will be machined a conical rather than cylindrical entryway for the injected pyrex, with the tip of the cone pointing downwards, and measuring very slightly less than 1/4 inch at the bottom and somewhat larger than 1/4 inch, say 3/16 inch, at the top.
A rack of cubes will be extruded at the same time in tables 1 and 4, and then cooled with coolant pumped through the mold. The extrusion technique will be used to fill the molds, with both molten and frozen pyrex, so that the molds can be more rapidly cooled than if only molten pyrex were used.
After cooling has solidified the pieces, the top half of table 4 will be lifted, and moved past table 3 to rest above table 2. THis is the reason for the conical passageway machined into the top half of the top half of the table 4 mold. The pyrex cone that has formed will hold the square 'lids' in the mold and keep the attached to the bottom of the top half of the mold when it is lifted off. Otherwise, gravity would keep the pieces in the bottom half of the table 4 mold when the top half was lifted off.
The pieces are attached by these cones, and adhere to the bottom of the top half of the mold as a result when the top half carries them over to table 2.
Table 2 is the equivalent of a wave soldering tank. Wave soldering tanks have widespread use in the manufacture of electronic circuit boards. The shallow tank contains a thin pool of molten solder, and a metal squeegee slides from one end of the tank to the other as the circuit boards are immersed, which creates a wave of solder that travels the length of the tank. This wave ensures that the entire surface of the board is covered and exposed to the solder, where otherwise there would be air gaps without the wave, and less than 100 percent application of the solder.
In this case, molten pyrex rather than molten solder is used, and the pyrex is applied as a 'glue' to the entire bottom surface of the molded sixth sides.
The mold is then rapidly lifted and moved to table 1 and dropped and mated to the table 1 mold before the pyrex has a chance to solidify. The table 1 mold is then cooled again.
After final solidification, the table 4 top mold lifts up again, this time carrying the entire array of extruded, mated, six sided hollow pyrex cubes. The mold passes table 2, and then pauses between table 2 and table 3. Remember, this mold, the top half of the table 4 mold, is a two piece mold, with a top and a bottom half, basically flat two steel plates, one on top of the other, with the cone passageways machined into the top half and the mold pattern machined into the bottom half.
When the mold pauses, the two halves slide over one another, and this breaks off the conical tangs, causing the cubes to fall out of the mold a short distance onto a conveyor belt.
The mold then travels to table 3, and mates with it. The posts on table 3 slide into small guideways machined into the table 4 mold, and into the conical passageways of the table 4 mold. This forces the broken conical tangs of the table 4 mold, and a sweeper runs over the top of the mold to remove the ejected tangs. The mold then moves back to table 4, and the process is repeated.
This manufactures the cubes, and is the first step in a three step process. As the cubes travel a short distance down the conveyor belt and reach their destination, manual labor is used to pick them up and place them into another mold. Robotics or automatic machinery could be used. If I thought hard enough about it, I could probably design it. However, I am not in the mood at this particular time, and manual labor would get the job done and not cause a significant price increase. To make a robot or an automation setup that would achieve 100 percent success at properly filling this mold would be difficult if not impossible. Even at 99.9999 percent accuracy, you would still need an operator to watch for the occasional .0001 percent error.
This mold would be a two piece mold, with both halves identical. The mold indentations would be half of a 3 inch cube, bisected parallel to any given side. The indentations would of course be ever so slightly larger than 3 inch by 3 inch by 1.5 inch, to allow for ease of insertion of the cubes.
This is the basic layout of the mold. [ ] represents one cube:
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This will be the finished product that comes out of the mold:
[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+- -+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ] [ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+- -+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ] [ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+- -+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ] [ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-[ ]-+-
The + and - characters represent 1/8 inch diameter pyrex rod extruded by the mold to cement the cubes together into a grid. In this case, we will use a mold to create a grid that measures 1 foot (four 3 inch thick hollow cubes wide) by 8 feet.
Now that you see the basic purpose, let's throw away that idea and go with this one:
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In this case, the mold has the cubes placed with a distance of 1/8th inch between the corners of the cubes, although it would be impossible to illustrate this easily using character graphics. The mold would connect the cubes at their corners, not their sides, with a 1/8 inch long 1/8th inch thick extruded pyrex rod. Flipped on its side, the panel would look like this:
[ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ] [ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ]
The rods that hold the array together would have to alternate heightat alternate rows of connection corners. This is because these arrays must be mirrored. In other words, the extrusion process is as follows:
Three of these completed cube arrays would be placed together end to end, using mating tangs that were injection molded by the mold that made the array, to make a 3 inch by 1 foot by 24 foot section of array. As the three arrays are mated they are tack welded together at their connection points with a laser or torch, or a slight amount of pyrex sprayed onto the mating tangs.
To start the extrusion of a 1 foot thick by 24 foot wide panel of arbitrary length, the array manufacturing process would begin turning out arrays, feeding them by short wide conveyor belt to the extrusion area.
The panels are delivered alternating, flipped over, or rotated 180 degrees, so that the cubes of one array mate into the empty spaces of the previous array. This is why the height of the connection points has to alternate. Say the connection points at the corners of the cubes are located at 1 inch rather than at the center (1.5 inches) of the cube corners. For each successive cube in the array, the height would alternate between 1 inch and 2 inches, or high low high low.
When each panel arrives, its precise location is determined by sensors, and is automatically aligned to the correct location. The array is then flipped up (rotated 90 degrees along the 24 foot length) into the extrusion area by steel fingers and held in place by the positioning tangs that were extruded by the array mold.
The machine waits for the second panel to arrive and be positioned. Then the molten and frozen pyrex are sprayed onto the array, enough to ensure a good 1/8th inch thickness of coverage, and then the second (appositely oriented) panel is rotated into place. With the opposite orientation, the cubes slide into the cubical holes in the first array panel. The second panel is only inserted halfway into the first, so that only 1.5 inches of the array panel is mated.
The process is then repeated over and over again. A 40 foot long panel, 12 inches thick and 24 feet wide, can be constructed in this fashion.
This techniques is best used in conjunction with the technique of using potassium filled pyrex bullets (in all three stages), to introduce potassium into the internal structure of the pyrex, in order to impart greatly improved strength and fracture resistance characteristics.
I have left out some of the details, like the need for half cubes (3x3x1.5) at the outer surfaces, the breaking off of the positioning tangs, and the coating of the exterior surfaces with 1/8 inch to 2 inches of molten pyrex (only this outer layer needs to be tinted or combination tinted to simulate jade or marble or onyx), and the finishing of the ends of the panels. The middle assembly step (conveyor belt) can probably be skipped, and the cubes directly applied to the extrusion surface from the molds they were created in, by using that mold to also make the positioning tangs and cube connection points and connections.
These panels have greatly improved load-bearing to weight ratio and impact resistance characteristics over foamed pyrex, and immensely improved characteristics over solid pyrex. In building construction, smaller cube sizes would be more desirable for use in floors, and larger sizes for use in walls.
Obviously, with clear pyrex, foamed and chambered foamed pyrex do not offer the comparatively excellent optical properties of solid pyrex. Thin wall solid pyrex is better suited to use in solar greenhouses, and thick chambered foamed and foamed pyrex are better suited to load-bearing.
Rhomboids would give the greatest amount of interior air space of any geometric shape, but using three or four sided pyramids might give better strength in very high capacity load bearing applications.
There are some points that are not immediately apparent on the initial description page. I will attempt to address these potential issues here.
First, some details of a viable first generation machine.
Vertical axle carrying 8 horizontal arms for a high speed rotary extrusion machine. Compressed air blows pyrex dust up the center of the hollow vertical axle and out through the eight hollow arms. An auger or screw rotating inside each arm ensures that the dust does not get compacted, and the centrifugal force of the rotating arms produces the ejection pressure for the cold side nozzle at the end of each arm.
The molten pyrex flows down through the top half of the hollow vertical axle and is routed to the hot side ejector nozzle in each of the eight arms, and again the centrifugal force of the rotating arms produces the ejection pressure.
With a high rate of extrusion limits are reached and a high enough deposition rate is easily achieved to where the molten pyrex will tend to run down the face of the extrusion surface. Blowing compressed air up the face from nozzles located below the extrusion surface will keep the molten pyrex suspended and prevent this. (If a high enough air pressure were used, the molten pyrex could be blown up the face.) The compressed air will also serve to cool the extrusion surface and therefore achieve faster solidification of the extrusion.
If chambered pyrex is desired, the cubes can be made on demand elsewhere, and rotated down to the extrusion surface on mechanical racks one section at a time. These would have to be four sided blocks, with the through pass (two open sides) oriented along the radius of the rotating arms (pointed at the surface. This way the ejection nozzles spray into the through pass and deposit material inside the four sided block as well as along the outer dimension of the block. Shortly after this adhesion will occur, and then a rack of flat faces to mate with the cubes can be rotated down onto the surface to seal off the ends of each block. This process is alternated to build up the surface.
Expand this basic high speed extrusion concept to a six layer axle carrier, so that six separate extrusion planes exist stacked on on top of another, to be able to extrude six separate panels at once. Each of the six planes has its own set of eight ejection nozzles.
I -------------------- I -------------------- I -------------------- I -------------------- I -------------------- I -------------------- I
Say a foot or two of space between each level. Six extrusion tunnels instead of one, stacked six high with a foot or two of space between each one.
If sticking to the extrusion tunnel is a problem it can be solved by using Teflon coating on the extrusion tunnel (the tunnel the panel slides through as it being built up). If this is not enough, two interlaced pin carriers will work. Two racks of fine pins, with one threaded through the other, oscillating or vibrating so that one changes height about a 64th of an inch up and down. Similar to a pin rack mold, where you can press your hand or face into a rack of through pins, and the force causes a nearly perfect mold of your the face or hand on the other side of the mold.
Obviously, one end of the finished length of panel will be concave, the other convex. The machine can be designed to make given lengths and automatically cut off the rounded ends and sent them back to the heat to be recycled.
With a six layer machine, structures can be extruded at what will likely be an astonishing rate of speed. Say the panel length is decided upon as 40 feet. The machine can be designed with 50 foot long extrusion tunnels. After the six panels pass out of the end of the extrusion tunnels the ends would automatically be cut off and sent back to be melted down again.
Then the top panel would be automatically lifted by hydraulic pressure, rotated to vertical and moved a distance to the right side. The next top panel would rotated vertical and moved a similar distance to the left side. The next tow panels would be unstacked and moved side by side an automatically welded together, as would be the last two at the bottom. If the panels are 8 feet wide, this yields a 16 foot wide by 8 foot high by 40 foot long structure which the machine will automatically weld together after it manipulates the panels into the proper positions with hydraulics and robotics.
These structures would be well suited to housing, greenhouses, or solar. For housing one would think it would be better to extrude thin tinted cover panels perhaps an inch or a half inch thick for the walls and roof, in case at some future date a different purpose (solar or agricultural) was desired, at which time the tinted panels could be fairly easily removed. If the entire structure is tinted originally, the only way to change its function from housing to solar or agriculture (transparent glass) will be to destroy and replace the entire structure.
I doubt that further details are needed since the robotics and hydraulic and computer control systems to implement this machine already exist in numerous different flavors and configurations.
I would suspect that a machine with a configuration based on this basic design should be able to easily terraform a mile each day of operation. Two or three miles per day would not be surprising.
Oxidation may be an issue. If it is, oxygen concentration equipment can be used, similar to home medical oxygen concentrator equipment, to create either an oxygen enriched atmosphere in the extrusion chamber, or by using the nitrogen / hydrogen side of the concentrator output to produce an oxygen deficient atmosphere.
That the molten droplet size and velocity are issues should be self apparent, and it need only be noted that the droplets must have a minimum mass and velocity, with the goal being to have a skin form on the droplet as it is ejected and have the droplets explode on contact with the surface, releasing their molten contents. If the droplet size is too small and the nozzle velocity is incorrect, too much skin will form and not enough molten material will be deposited. The only significant concern here is that this places upper limits on the possible speed of extrusion (which can also be expressed as how many miles of extrusion per day are possible).
A single or multiple plane rotary machine can also have its place in housing construction as described in pyrex2.htm, the only concern is that the rounded ends must be cut off, and that there are limits to the potential width of the panels. This can be overcome by butt joint or other type of joint welding multiple panels together at their ends to form a single wide panel.
If nozzle cooling is an issue, a liquid lithium or liquid sodium cooling system can be used, routing the coolant down through the upper half of the vertical axle. The best example of liquid metal cooling is found in the Clinch River Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor. However, such designs are not that far advanced beyond a standard automobile cooling system. One must have a pre-heater to liquefy the metal, a radiator to get rid of the heat, and a pump to circulate the liquid metal. The heat resistant characteristics of the cooling system metals are more demanding, but usable materials do exist, as evidenced in the fast breeder reactor.